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  • UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS (ADMINISTRATION AND PLANNING) EDUCATIONAL PLANNING A TERM PAPER PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE COURSE CODE 535 (EDUCATIONAL PLANNING) BY OMOHA FATU DORCAS REG: PG/MED/10/52507 OKECHUKWU, CHIDOLUO VITUS PG/MED/10/57197
  •  UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

    DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS

    (ADMINISTRATION AND PLANNING)

    EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

    A TERM PAPER

    PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE

    REQUIREMENT FOR THE COURSE CODE 535

    (EDUCATIONAL PLANNING)

    BY

    OMOHA FATU DORCAS REG: PG/MED/10/52507

    OKECHUKWU, CHIDOLUO VITUS PG/MED/10/57197


    LECTURER: DR. (MRS) G.T.U. CHIAHA

    JUNE, 2011

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    As presented by Onyerisara and Aisiku (1982)

    “The introduction of western education into Nigeria dates back to the year 1842, whom the invitation of some Yoruba immigrants from Sierra Leone who had settled in Bandaging some 50 Kilometers west of Lagos, the Wesley, a Methodist society sent Rev. Father Birch Freeman from Cape Coast where has had been the super intendments of the Methodist Mission”

    Fafunwa (1974) African Traditional Education and Quranic System Predicate western forms of education in Nigeria. To Fafunwa, African Traditional Education symbolizes the values, norms, and ways of life and training of the youths to maturity in Africa. Fafunwa (1974) Quranic System became or seem to cover African Traditional in the northern parts of Nigeria.

    Fafunwa, (1982) “African education is the second rate education imported from France, Britain, or Spain the imperial powers that dominated the political and commercial life of the African continent over three hundred years.”

    The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defined education: “the process of teaching, training, and learning especially in schools or colleges, to improve knowledge and develop skills”. Oraegbunam (2004) the basic aim of education is to develop an individual mentally,

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    socially, morally so that the learner can be useful to the society, and to all. Nwankpa, (2004) educational planners are constantly trying to introduce changes into the educational system as new discoveries are about human learning or as the society changes” or as new development appear in science and technology as indicated by Nwankpa, (1997). Olatunjo and Akanwa, (2004) education touches on every fabrics of human endeavor and it is one of the biggest industries in Nigeria National Policy on Education 1981 expressed that education serves as the vehicle for national development.

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    Ezeugo (2004) saw education as a process and discipline. Education has a concern which all societies share. It closely associated with the life and well being of the society itself. According to Plato, a good education consists in giving to the body and soul all the beauty and perfection necessary for the realization of societal norms and aspirations. Ukeje (1984) education as a process and discipline. Dewey, (1966) saw education as experience in experiencing. Ebouh (1984) Ukeje continued that education is used to produce an effective, durable,intelligent, emotional, and complete man. There shall be plans in education as to achieve this aims in this definitions. We will first define some terms which will help in the study. According to Edem, (1982) unplanned education is education already in crisis. It therefore shows there are needs for a sound educational planning, fir it will do the following work and function.

    • Help educational administrators plan Nigeria education.

    • It will help policy makers make better policies.

    • It will help education administrators in general.

    • It will help in budget making.

    • It develops the systems of education.

    • It leads to effective functional education.

    • It dedicates to look at policies, rules, budgets, and other things made by the administrators, etc.

    CHAPTER TWO

    “WHAT IS PLANNING” A SKEPTIC ASKED

    Planning is a structure objective and paths set for achievement f given goal. Wikipedia defined planning as used to describe the formal procedures used in such an Endeavour, such as creation of documents diagrams, or meetings to discuss the important issues objectives, strategy to use and administered. Planning indicates what one is doing and differentiates ambition from goals. It sates how goals are to be achieved.

    Another definition of

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    planning is a process for accomplishing purposes. It is the blue print of business organization growth or failure, road map to development. An organization without organizational planning is already a failure, and is said to be working towards failure. Planning helps in deciding both in quantitative and qualitative terms. It is setting of goals on the basis of objective and keeping in the resources, (Amakoye, 2004). Olayemi, (2000) agreed that planning as constructed plans to which growth and extension is expected. It has to be regulated as to make most advantages of it. Planning sets to work the objectives… There are three purposes of planning. It helps management to clarity, focus and researches their business prospects. Precede logical framework within a business can develop and pursue business strategies over some years and finally, planning offers a bench mark against which actual performance can be measured and reverenced.

     A man who rejects planning, claiming planning does not pay has willingly and carefully accepted that his failure is not by chance but choice. The fact was made well clear and accepted by education.

    There are many types of training to which educational planning is one of them: Architectural planning, comprehensive planning, business plan, even planning and production, family planning, land use planning, market plan, urban planning, contingency planning.

    Planning is fundamental activity in human enterprise, basically every mature person engages in one type of plan or the other... Individuals make for important life activities such as erecting a house, getting married education, setting up some business. Communities embark on community needs; such plans include construction community roads, providing pipe-borne water, rural electrification, health centers, and schools. Government as well does make plans to cater for the needs essential services and amenities such as transportation, healthcare railway, agriculture and food production, education, roads, water, and electricity. All these reflect some notions of the concepts of planning in the minds of the people.

    THE MEANING OF PLANNING

    The word planning has received various definitions by various people, Greg, (1957), describes planning as an intelligent preparation for action. Nwachukwu, (1988), is the view that the essence of planning is to prepare for and predict future events. It is the blue for action and failure to plan give rise to inefficiency and lack of direction.

     Dror, (1963) defines planning as the process of preparing a set of decisions for action in the future, directed at achieving goals, by optional means. In each of these definitions, planning represents the acts of getting prepared in advance or preparing an action ahead of time to achieve a desired objective. Planning is considered the back bone of successful business enterprise.

     It is vital and inevitable process in the pursuit of organizational goals. Without proper planning organizations loses focus and direction and become susceptible to the whims and caprices of the leader and external forces as well which make the realization of organizational goals impossible.

    EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IS DEFINED,

     Combs, (1974), defines planning as the process of educational development with the aim of making more effective and efficient in responding to the media and goals of its student and the society. Nwankwo, (1985) warns that educational planning is not a panacea for all the actual or imagined ills of the educational system. He goes on to define it as a way that the goals and purpose of education will be sufficiently realized in future with the available resources. Educational planning deals with how to harness the available human and material resources to achieve educational goals.

    CHAPTER THREE

    APPRACHES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

    These methods can be summarized under four principal headings namely social demand approach, the manpower requirement approach, rate of return cost benefit approach synthetic approach.

    The social demand approach: this is the planning to meet the private demand for education on the part of the student or their parents. In other words, it is an attempt to satisfy on the part of students or their families. In other words, it is an attempt to satisfy people’s demand for school places for those who wish and can gain from education. Akanbou (1982) asserted that this approach has become a common tool of education planning in Nigeria, but large restricted to the first and second level of education. The approach has featured all along in time. Nigeria educational planning, but became most prominent in the Third National Development Planning, 1975-80. the expansion of teachers training institutions establishment of some new universities and the improvement in aids in terms of loans and scholarships to students. Moreover in 1978, university education became tuition free. The UPE scheme, apart from making primary education opportunities available to willing children of school age, age planned to make it compulsory by 1982.

    Social demand approach may socially and politically expedient but cannot over shadow the inherent problems. Through linear expansion within the last decade. This has resulted in over populated schools and over crowed classrooms. Thus, Ukeje, (1982) cautioned, that the phenomena of over crowded classrooms and over populated schools with the presentation of unqualified teachers and with handily and teaching equipment and materials require special leaders in education.

     It is really necessary to sound a warning here because an observation of the Nigerian educational system since the UPE experiments shows that there has been drastic effects on explosion enrolments, teacher demand and supply and shortages of each other facilities and finance. According to Akangbou, (1982), these are the usual implication for adopting the social demand approach.

     In addition the approach has severe economic implications. All levels of education in most countries are subsidized to some extent. In the sense that fees are wither or set well below unit cost… Also, social demand approach to educational planning. Sometimes draws from comprises and adopting the expenditure norms of other countries. But this is unrealistic because there are no equivalent levels of income per head, equivalent mixes of formal education and on the job training and equivalent educational system. Blang reasoned that copying other countries is almost always sign of irrational planning. In view of the above social approach to educational planning is inherently unsatisfactory.

    ADVANTAGES OF SOCIAL DEMAND APPROACH

    • It helps to meet the private demands for education on the part of students and their parents.

    • It can be influenced by increase or reduction of school fees.

    • Social demand is a rich means to achieve mass literacy; hence education is for all who demands for it.

    DEMERITS

    • It has effects o explosion on environments

    • An acute shortage of facilities

    • Lack of adequate fund

    • Tends to over estimate popular demands and under estimation of cost

    • High rates of unemployment due to over-production in man-power.

    • Over-population and over crowded classrooms..

    • Inadequate facilities from the above assertions, if managed well.

    The social demand approach can go a long way to offer education to all who require it at a minimal disadvantage and an optional result.

    MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS APPROACH

    The social aims at the production of the manpower needed for the sustenance of the economy, it placed great emphasis on the manpower needs of the society in giving education. According to Nwankwo, (1981) the basic of this approach is to forecast requirement or needs of the economy, or the relative distribution of trained people in the various required by labor market to produce a certain level of development for given period.

    Many economists prefer the manpower to educational planning because economic growth is the spring of a nation’s over all development and so should play a leading role in the allocation of its resources. Economic growth requires only physical resources to organize and use them. Thus the development of human resources through the educational system is an important pre-requisite to economic growth and a good investment of scarce resources, provided the pattern and the quality of educational out put is that school to the economy’s man power needs. The assumption of this approach is that school is a human industry where the power needed by the society need to be produced.

    This approach holds very promising package nations where there exists a persistent shortage of the right kind and number of workers. National development and advancement call for precise shells and the number of people with sun skills.

     Many developing nations has benefited from this method of educational planning. In Nigeria, one can recall that they ASBY commission of 1960 used manpower requirement approach in working out the statistics for higher education expansion during 1960-80. The modalities were worked out by late professor Harrison and the approach used is known as Harrison is rule-of-thumb. The report, assumed that if the nation’s economy was to achieve four percent rate of economic growth, the senior and intermediate manpower should grow 8-13 percent respectively.

    Ghana has also benefited from this approach 66 most nations today are development minded. The less developed countries which have been poor for many years, appear to be in a state of revolt against poverty, ignorance and dominance by stronger nations and they are no longer disposed. It appears to entrust their futures exclusively to the forces of the market. The sologen for the wide revolution is development.

     Development in this regard is the human resources development which is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills and capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it means the communication of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. Human resources can be developed in many ways. The most obvious is by formal education. Secondly, human resources can be developed through on the job training. An avenue for such development is through self development as individuals seek to acquire greater knowledge, skills or capabilities through correspondence or by learning from others through informal contracts.

    Of all the methods of human resource development, education seems to be the best. Alfred Marshall emphasized the importance of education as a national investment and in his view the most valuable of the capital is that invested in human beings. Human resource development therefore may be a more realistic and reliable indicator of development of growth; social, political, cultural or economic. Nigeria is a country not shouts sighted about the importance of manpower development as means of manpower development.

    The need for this was a result of abundant natural resources which Nigeria is blessed with, yet it suffers on a continuous basis, acute shortage of basic necessities. The presence of an abundant natural resources like mineral, water, forests, and human beings is not a guarantee that the wealth of that nation and its living condition will be adequate.

     This is because natural resources can exists but may not be discovered or exploited. Infarct that was the situation in Nigeria for a long time in order to exploit these natural resources and increase the nation’s wealth, the human agents must be provided or made available. The process by which the educational system produces human skills for the country’s labor force is known as manpower production. The production of educated manpower, however as to control as the aim is too produced skilled that will require in the future so as to achieve the estimated economic growth targets. The process of doing such has become known as manpower forecasting. Generally, there are various ways manpower forecasting can be undertaken. Six methods have become popular over time.

    These are:

    1. The employment opinion method.

    2. The Harbison is rule of thumb method.

    3. The incremental labor output ration.

    4. The destiny ratio method.

    5. The panes-Mediterranean regional project method.

    6. The international comparison method.

    7. The employer’s opinion method.

    The employers opinion method of forecasting manpower needs is the simplest of all methods essentially involves asking employers through the use of questionnaires, how much and what kind of labor they expect to employ during the next few years, when the questionnaires are filled by the various employers, then all the estimates of the quality and the quality of labor to be hired will be added together. From this total those estimated to be retiring, dying, and in some cases migrating during the period will be subtracted to obtain forecast of the increase in effective demand for educated manpower by the target year.

    Harbison, rule of thumb method. This method was first adopted by Professor F. Harbison in 1960. it states that the amount of intermediate and the senior level of manpower to be required by an country should be related to the expected income growth of that country. He believed that the ratio of national income to senior level manpower 1:2:3: this ration was not based on any empirical or scientific analysis, this method can lead to a gross under-estimation especially in the developing countries where income growth rate is mainly externally determined.

    Incremental labor output ratio method

    This method requires the use of time serves data, that is by years for a period of time, it is based on the labor and output relationship, is believed that an increase in output level with determine the likely increase in labor demand. Labor here refers to a particular type of manpower in an occupational category while output refers to national income or industrial output, this method is not possible to adopt to adopt in Nigeria.

    The destiny ratio-method

    This method is sometimes referred to as the ratio of saturation. The Russians have made use of this approach in making long term educated manpower forecast. Two stages are involved in making in this forecast.

     Firstly, there will be an estimation of the stable of qualified manpower in the labor force of an economic sector of the country. For example, in the manufacturing sector of Nigeria, how many workers and engineers? This number of workers are divided from the total number of workers that existed.

    Secondly, the stable fraction obtained is the applied to the forecast of the total labor force as distributed among the various economic sectors.

    The international comparison method

    This method arose from the discovery that country without adequate manpower data and information but has similar characteristics within without manpower data and information but has similar characteristics within any other country that had such data.

    The panes- Mediterranean regional method

    This method was developed in 1962 as a result of the efforts of the organization for economic community and development to produce educational plans based on a common conceptual framework for the countries in the Mediterranean region.

    MERITS OF MAN-POWER RQUIREMENT APPROACH

    This methods is very advantageous, it aims at maximizing productivity by marching expected demand for skills with supply. The manpower requirement approach seeks to determine employment vacancies ever the students are achieved. It checks educated unemployment by ensuring that the required education is given in consonance with the requirement of the society.

    CONCLUSSION

    Education poses a threat to ignorance. Educational planning management clears the threat of the uncompleted assigned, unfinished, abandoned promises projects, policies and promise and agencies.

    References

    Adamaechi, B.C. And Romaine, H.A.. (2002) Issues And Prospects Of Free. Compulsory And Qualitative Education In Onitsha: Nigerian Educational Publishers Ltd.

    Dewey, J. (1966) Democracy and Education Free Press of Glence, New York: Holt Pub Limited.

    Ebouh, C.F.N. (2006) Comparative Education for Tertiary Institutions, Sky Printing Process.

    Edem, D.A. (1982) Introduction to Educational Administration in Nigeria. John Wiley and Son Ltd.

    Ezeugo, N.C. (2204) Education for Sustainable Development in The Millennium.

    Fafunwa A. Babs, And Asiku J.U. (1982) Education In Africa: A Comparative Survey. George Allen and Union, (Publishers) Ltd Uk.

    Fafunwa A. B. (1982) History Of Education, London: Allen And Union, 1974.

    Federal Republic Of Nigeria (1994) National Policy On Education, Lagos Federal Government Press Mkpa. M.A. 91987 Curricullum Developments and Implication, Owerri. Totan Publishers Ltd.

    Nwankpa N.O. (2004) Promoting Teaching and Learning through Teleconferencing In Academic Enrolment: Implications For The National Open Universities. Education for Sustainable Development in the New Millennium Edited Ny Nwankpan.O. And Nwankwo C.A.N.

    Nwankpa, N.O. (1997) Curriculum Innovation and Evaluation, Onitsha: Emba Publishers.

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